Political Apartheid in California
Consequences of Excluding a Growing Noncitizen Population
Joaquin Avila, Esq.
Latino Policy and Issues Brief, Number 9
December 2003

In California, over 4.6 million noncitizen adults (including 3.0 million Latinos) contribute to the state economy and government revenues but lack political representation. At least 12 cities have noncitizen adult majorities.